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Molecular Diagnostic Testing

Molecular Diagnostic Testing
Molecular Diagnostic Testing

Molecular diagnostics is a type of diagnostic testing used to identify a disease or to identify the risk of developing a disease, mainly Cancer. It involves studying molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins.

The molecular diagnosis testing method uses a sample of tissue, blood, or any other body fluid to study certain types of genes, proteins, or molecules that can be responsible for any disease, such as Cancer.

Methods of Molecular diagnostic testing

The three main molecular diagnosis methods are PCR, ELISA and DNA Microarray. These diagnostic tools involve DNA or RNA fragments or antigen-antibody interactions.

  1. PCR – PCR is a Polymerase chain reaction, a cost-effective way to copy small and specific DNA or RNA Sequences. It is the most accurate test for detecting any active infection and genetic changes in the body.
  2. ELISA – ELISA or Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay is an immunoassay technique used to detect diseases such as Ebola, AIDS, Lyme disease and carcinoma of epithelial cells.
  3. DNA Microarray – This is a special genetic test used to determine whether the DNA from a specific individual contains any mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2. It is very helpful in detecting any small genetic changes in tumour cells.

Importance of Molecular Diagnostic Testing

It involves analyzing DNA or RNA for red flags which can pinpoint the potential emergence of a specific disease or Cancer.

These days, doctors are recommending molecular testing not only to find the origin of cancer in one’s body but also to study it better to recommend the best possible treatment for the type of cancer one is fighting. The doctors are also recommending molecular testing for family members of a cancer patient to identify potential candidates for cancers. Such candidates are then kept on surveillance for potential future threats of any malignancy. These cancers, specifically cancers like breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer or lung cancer, which have high incidence rates within the family, can be treated at many early stages once such a threat is identified using a Molecular test. 

Other New Technology for Cancer Diagnostics 

  1. Gene-study / Genetic Study 
  2. Molecular Study
  3. Exacta Therapy 
  4. Synthetic Biomarkers 
  5. Cytogenetics

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