Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a birth defect that causes a hole in the wall between the heart’s upper chambers (atria). This defect allows mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, eventually causing right heart enlargement and high pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension)
In Open Heart Surgery for ASD (Surgical), the hole in the heart is closed by making a tiny hole through the chest, inserting an endoscope the hole is closed with sutures and special tissue patch. Surgery is chosen for heart holes which are bigger in size. The defect may be closed with stitches or a special patch.
In Device Closure (Non-surgical) technique cardiac catheterization is used to put a special device (septal occluder). The device stops blood from flowing through the VSD. A catheter is inserted through the groin
and the device is inserted through the catheter and is left over the hole to close it. This procedure is chosen for small sized holes.