Cataract is the clouding of the lens of the eye. Though it can occur at any age but it is the leading cause of vision loss in people over age 55. More than half of people over age 65 have some degree of cataract development.
Other reasons may be prolonged use of steroids, exposure to ultra violet and associated health problems like diabetes and eye injuries. Person with diabetes, smoke, or have a family history of cataract, excessive exposure to sunlight, serious eye injury or inflammation, prolonged use of steroids have increased risk of cataract.
When cataract develops person feels blurry vision, faded colors, glare, difficulty in seeing at night and double vision, eye strain, headache and frequent change of glasses. One should not ignore the early symptoms and get a check-up of the eyes by eye specialist. Ignorance may lead to complication.
At early stage of cataract, new eyeglasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses may help but if these measures don’t improve your symptoms, the only effective treatment is surgery, which involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens.
Surgery is the only known effective treatment for cataract removal and is one of the safest and most effective types of surgery, with a success rate of about 90 percent. All cataract surgeries are aimed at removal of the cloudy natural lens and replacing it with an Intra Ocular Lens (IOL). These lenses can be inserted through a small 1.8 to 2.8 mm opening. With this small incision foldable lenses are implanted into the eyes. Thus there is no need of full day admission, injection, stitch and patching of the eye. One can go for surgery in any season and resume once duties on a very next day.
With the technological advancement today we have a great choice of lens. Aspheric lens work like a natural human lens, cylinder number can be corrected by Toric IOL and a person will be glass free with Multifocal lenses. They are explained in detail as below:
- Aberration free/ Aspheric IOLS
These IOLs gives good quality of vision post-operative due to the lens design, it also improves the contrast sensitivity of the patient and good night vision. These lenses also filter the harmful UV light and blue light which are said to be harmful to the retina.
- Toric IOLS
These IOLs correct the pre-existing corneal astigmatism there by reducing the possibility of spectacle wear for distant vision post operatively.
- Multifocal IOLs
These IOLs provide clear vision for all distances hence almost 90% of the day-to-day activities can be performed without the need for additional glasses. Rarely the patient may experience glare during nights post operatively but usually gets adapted within a few months.
- Accommodating IOLs
These IOLs have flexible hinges that enables them to change focus for different distances hence providing clear distance, intermediate and near vision without glasses.