Prostate Cancers develop from the gland cells (the cells that make the prostate fluid that is added to the semen). Technically it is also called Prostate adenocarcinoma.
Other kind of cancers related to the prostate gland includes:
- Small cell carcinomas
- Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas)
- Transitional cell carcinomas
Treatment for Prostate Cancer in India –
Evaluation / Investigations and Tests required to Treat Prostate Cancer: To confirm the diagnosis, the patient will require detailed evaluations like TRUS prostate biopsy/MRI prostate, Cystoscopy (a diagnostic test whereby a urologist examines the inside of the bladder and urethra using a tube with a lens called a cystoscope), ultrasonography, CT-scan, blood test, Urine culture, intravenous pyelogram (IVP) which is a special x-ray examination of the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), to confirm the diagnosis. The further line of treatment will be decided based upon the reports of the investigations.
Treatment for Prostate Cancers in India: Basis the results of the evaluation, the final treatment plan will be decided, If biopsy suggests an Operable Tumour then the patient will need Surgical Treatment or Surgical Excision of the Prostate Cancer Gland.
Surgical Treatments for Prostate Cancer – If biopsy results in benign then the patient will need TURP and if biopsy results in malignant then the patient will need radical prostatectomy.
TURP- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a type of prostate surgery done to relieve moderate to severe urinary symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate, a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Radical Prostatectomy- A radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it. It is done to remove prostate cancer. This operation will be done by laparoscopic surgery through small incisions.
In case of Metastasis:-
The patient may also need Radiotherapy or Chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy in India for Prostate Cancer
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells. Radiation may be used:
- As the first treatment for low-grade cancer that is still just in the prostate gland.
- As a combination treatment for cancers that have grown outside of the prostate gland and into nearby tissues.
- If there is any residual cancer or relapses / comes back (recurs) in the area of the prostate after the initial surgery.
- If the cancer is well spread and the tumor is big, reduce the size of the tumor and provide relief from present and possible future symptoms.
The 2 main types of radiation therapy are external beam radiation and brachytherapy (internal radiation). Both appear to be good methods of treating prostate cancer, although there is more long-term information about the results with external beam radiation.
In Chemotherapy medical oncologist uses anti-cancer drugs injected into a vein or given by mouth. These drugs enter the bloodstream and go throughout the body, making this treatment potentially useful for cancers that have spread (metastasized) to distant organs.
Hormone therapy is also called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen suppression therapy. The goal is to reduce levels of male hormones, called androgens, in the body, or to stop them from affecting prostate cancer cells. The main androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Non-Surgical Treatment in India for Prostate Cancer –
HolEP Treatment in India for Prostate Cancer / Laser Treatment in India for Prostate Cancer
Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a treatment for an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
During HoLEP, a laser is used to precisely remove the obstructive portion of the prostate, similar to open surgery without the need for incisions. A separate instrument called a morcellator is then used to cut the prostate tissue into easily removable fragments. With HoLEP, surgeons remove the entire portion of the prostate gland that can block urine flow, which improves urinary symptoms and provides a lasting solution as there is nothing to grow back following this procedure
HIFU uses high-frequency ultrasound waves to heat and destroys cancer cells in the prostate for Prostate cancers that are localized. HIFU is one of the treatments that’s used for prostate cancer that is completely contained within the prostate