Cervical Spine:

HeadInjuries1 Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull.

Head Injuries include:

  • Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, in which the brain is shaken.
  • Scalp wounds
  • Skull fractures
  • Bleeding

Types of Head Injury:

Close
A closed head injury means you received a hard blow to the head from striking an object, but the object did not break the skull.

Open
An open, or penetrating, head injury means you were hit with an object that broke the skull and entered the brain. This usually happens when you move at high speed, such as going through the windshield during a car accident. It can also happen from a gunshot to the head.
Complications:
Altered consciousness:
Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury can result in prolonged or permanent changes in a person’s state of consciousness, awareness or responsiveness, which leads to further problems like Coma, Vegetative state, minimally conscious, state Locked-in syndrome etc.

HeadInjuries2Fluid buildup:
Cerebrospinal fluid may build up in the spaces in the brain (cerebral ventricles) of some people who have had traumatic brain injuries, causing swelling and increased pressure in the brain.

Infections:
Skull fractures or penetrating wounds can tear the layers of protective tissues (meninges) that surround the brain. This can enable bacteria to enter the brain and cause infections. An infection of the meninges (meningitis) could spread to the rest of the nervous system if not treated.

Blood vessel & Nerve damage:
Several small or large blood vessels in the brain may be damaged in a traumatic brain injury. Injuries to the base of the skull can damage nerves that emerge directly from the brain. This damage could lead to a stroke, blood clots or other problems.

Cognitive problems:
Most people who have had a significant brain injury will experience changes in their thinking (cognitive) skills. Traumatic brain injury can result in problems with many skills like communication problems, Emotional changes, Behavioral changes, Sensory problem etc.

Degenerative brain diseases:
A traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of diseases that result in the gradual degeneration of brain cells and gradual loss of brain functions.
Surgeries:
Shunt Placement:
HeadInjuries3Shunt placement is one of the most common treatments for excess fluid. This is an artificial drainage system which consists of a long flexible tube whose one end is placed in one of the ventricles and the other is tunneled into that part of the body which can absorb the CSF well. It also has a valve which helps the fluid to flow in the right direction and at the right rate. This process may need additional surgeries. Though this process is considered effective, it is not 100% safe. There are few complications which one may face during or after the surgery. Infection, mechanical failure, lengthening or replacements of catheter are some of the complications. Apart from these, shunt problems may also be faced by some patients. Over draining or under draining of the CSF, both may cause fatal consequences. Hence if the person observes any problems after the surgery it is very important to get a proper check-up to know whether the device is working properly.
Ventriculostomy: HeadInjuries4
The next common surgery is known as ventriculostomy. This is used when there is an obstruction in the ventricles of the brain. The surgeon makes a hole in the lower part of the ventricle from where the fluid drains out and reaches the base of the brain where it can be absorbed easily.