Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) open heart surgery is a procedure used to treat coronary artery disease in certain circumstances. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the narrowing of the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle), caused by a buildup of fatty material within the walls of the arteries. This buildup causes the inside of the arteries to become narrowed, limiting the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
The heart is basically a pump. The heart is made up of specialized muscle tissue, called the myocardium. The heart’s primary function is to pump blood throughout the body so that the body’s tissues can receive oxygen and nutrients. When the heart tissue does not receive an adequate blood supply, it cannot function as well as it should. If the myocardium’s blood supply is decreased for a length of time, a condition called ischemia may develop. Ischemia can decrease the heart’s pumping ability because the heart muscle is weakened due to a lack of oxygen.
For many years, coronary artery disease (CAD) was commonly called “hardening of the arteries” and was not easily treated. However, in the last 30 years, many advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac diseases.
How do patients recover after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG) surgery in India?
After the surgery, Sutures are removed from the chest prior to discharge and from the leg (if the saphenous vein is used) after 7 to 10 days. Patients are advised not to lift heavy weights or drive for the first four weeks to avoid any injury to the chest. Exercise stress testing is routinely done four to six weeks after CABG. Patients are also counseled to stop smoking, reducing weight and dietary fat, controlling blood pressure and diabetes, and lowering blood cholesterol levels.
The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. The heart has four pumping chambers: two upper chambers called atria, and two lower chambers, called ventricles. To keep the blood flowing forward during its journey through the heart, there are valves between each of the heart’s pumping chambers.
Heart Valve Replacement (VR) surgery be done when valves are damaged or diseased and do not work the way they should. Conditions that may cause heart valve dysfunction are valve stenosis (stiffness) and valve regurgitation (leaky valve).
When one (or more) valve(s) becomes stenotic (stiff), the heart must work harder to pump the blood through the valve. Some reasons why heart valves become narrow and stiff include infection (such as rheumatic fever or staphylococcus infections) and aging. If one or more valves become leaky, blood leaks backward, which means less blood is pumped in the right direction. Based on your symptoms and the overall condition of your heart, your health care provider may decide that the diseased valve(s) needs to be surgically repaired or replaced.
Treatment for Valve Replacement (VR) Surgery In India – Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery / Mitral Valve Replacement Surgery / Tricuspid Valve Replacement Surgery / Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgery
During traditional heart Valve Replacement (VR) surgery, a surgeon will make an incision down the center of your sternum (breastbone) to get direct access to your heart. The surgeon then repairs or replaces your abnormal heart valve or valves. While this approach remains in use, today most patients with isolated valve disease can be treated with minimally invasive techniques.
Minimally invasive surgery is a type of surgery performed through smaller incisions. This type of surgery reduces blood loss, trauma, and length of hospital stay. Heart Valve Replacement (VR) surgery is the most common minimally invasive procedure. Your surgeon will review your diagnostic tests prior to your surgery to see if you are a candidate for minimally invasive Valve Replacement (VR) surgery.
This specialized aortic Valve Replacement (VR) surgery is used most often with children and adults under age 35. The procedure involves replacing the patient’s diseased aortic valve with the patient’s own pulmonary valve, called an autograft. Then the surgeon replaces the pulmonary valve with a homograft pulmonary valve. That is a pulmonary valve from a human donor. Compared to traditional valve replacement using manufactured prosthetic valves, the Ross Procedure is most beneficial for young people and active older patients: The pulmonary valve lasts longer than prosthetic valves, which tend to fail after a few years in younger patients.